Screening tonight, MADE IN BOISE tells the story of a community of women risking their own health for humanity’s sake and the emotional complications that come with the journey of surrogacy.
Four women find purpose carrying babies for strangers in the conservative heartland of Boise, Idaho — the unregulated and unofficial “surrogacy capital” of the United States. As the surrogacy industry booms globally, MADE IN BOISE tells the story of a community of women risking their own health for humanity’s sake and the emotional complications that come with the journey of surrogacy. AFI spoke with director Beth Aala about her new film.
MADE IN BOISE plays as part of the Spectrum program at AFI DOCS at the AFI Silver Theatre in Silver Spring, MD on Sunday, June 23. Buy tickets to the screening here.
AFI: What led you to pursue documentary filmmaking?
I’ve always loved movies as a kid — musicals, classics, big blockbuster hits. When I moved to New York after college, I was awed by the incredibly diverse communities and interesting backgrounds of all the people around me. It was then that I realized that real stories are what truly captivate me.
AFI: How did you become interested in this story? What inspired you to tell it?
My best friend from college was having fertility issues, and, after five failed IVF attempts and three painful miscarriages, she asked if I would carry her child for her. Paid surrogacy is illegal in New York, and she couldn’t pay someone to do it. Instead, she had to turn to her family and friends, and she asked me. Thankfully, she eventually got pregnant and successfully carried, so that I didn’t have to do it. But that was my first real encounter with surrogacy, when I witnessed such a painful period around infertility — of someone very close to me.
AFI: How did you find and connect with the subjects in MADE IN BOISE?
A childhood friend is a labor and delivery nurse at Boise’s local hospital, St. Luke’s Boise Medical Center. She shared how common it was for the staff to do surrogacy, so I was immediately fascinated. When I visited Boise for the first time, I really got a sense that there was in fact a whole community around the practice, and I began filming on the spot.
AFI: What kinds of obstacles did you face while making the film?
Surrogacy is very misunderstood and still very much stigmatized. Those who do know about surrogacy might presume the women are being exploitive or have presumptions of why a person chose this path. There were frustrating moments trying to get people to understand that it’s almost always a last resort for people who want to have children and that it’s incredibly complex.
AFI: What do you want audiences to walk away with after watching the film?
Surrogacy is not what many people think it is, and it’s an incredibly emotional and logistically complicated process.
AFI: Why do you think documentary films are important today?
Documentaries can transport you into a world you otherwise wouldn’t know anything about. Most people who have seen this film (or early versions of it) always tell me how surprised or moved they were or that they had no idea this was happening in our country, particularly in Boise. I too lacked the knowledge about it when I started making the film. So documentaries can build empathy in a way that’s really powerful and effective because you are immersed in someone’s life. For a short amount of time you can walk in their shoes — or at least walk beside them and experience intimately what they are going through.
Bryan Stevenson of the Equal Justice Initiative at the world premiere of HBO’s TRUE JUSTICE: BRYAN STEVENSON’S FIGHT FOR EQUALITY.
The subject of the world-premiere 2019 AFI DOCS Opening Night Film talks about taking more courageous approaches to telling stories of racial injustice in this thought-provoking Q&A clip.Stevenson talks about taking more courageous approaches to telling stories of racial injustice in this thought-provoking Q&A clip from AFI DOCS 2019.
As a lawyer defending the rights of condemned prisoners on death row, Bryan Stevenson has argued many cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. Each time, he takes a moment to read the words etched on the building: “Equal Justice Under Law.” Stevenson says, “I have to believe that, to make sense out of what I do.”
Fighting for equal justice within a system that has allowed slavery, lynching, segregation, and, now, mass incarceration, is Stevenson’s life work. He founded the Equal Justice Initiative in Montgomery, Alabama to provide legal services for the poor and is the driving force behind a new national lynching memorial. TRUE JUSTICE makes the case that Stevenson is among the rarest of storytellers, one whose words are every bit as moving as what’s written on the Supreme Court building. –Ken Jacobson
Screening tonight at 6 p.m., AUTONOMY explores the history of automated cars and the impact this technology will have on our society. As the value of our time has changed, it is unavoidable that automation affects the economics of our everyday life.
Executive-produced by Malcolm Gladwell, AUTONOMY asks questions about who will benefit most from this technology, and about the liability and safety concerns of self-driving cars. Futurist thinkers, engineers and researchers share stories of innovation and how new design will shape our experience of traveling by car. By reflecting on the automotive industry’s past, AUTONOMY prompts an important discussion of how Silicon Valley approaches this issue and the policies we should consider during this mobility revolution. –Sarah Harris
SPECIAL SCREENING – National Geographic Grosvenor Auditorium
SEA OF SHADOWS – Screened today at 2 p.m. Followed by a National Geographic reception. This environmental thriller was every bit as gripping and nail-biting as any pulp novel but with real world consequences for the Sea of Cortez. Trapped in nets used to catch the totoaba — a large fish whose bladders are highly prized in China for their supposed anti-aging properties — the vaquita gets tossed aside as collateral damage. While Mexican drug cartels seek to capitalize on this lucrative, illegal market, the Mexican government, conservationists and a famous TV reporter fight to save the vaquita. But with fewer than 10 vaquita left in the world, time is running out. Winner of the Audience Award in the Sundance World Cinema Documentary Competition. –Ken Jacobson
Director: Richard Ladkani
Producers: Walter Köhler, Wolfgang Knöpfler
Executive Producers: Leonardo DiCaprio, Jennifer Davisson, Phillip Watson, Scott Z. Burns
Each year, the AFI DOCS Charles Guggenheim Symposium honors a master of documentary film. This year AFI recognizes the exceptional career of filmmaker Freida Lee Mock as the 2019 Guggenheim honoree.
Demonstrating a remarkable range of subject matter, Freida Lee Mock has, for more than three decades, been one of America’s greatest cinematic biographers. From MAYA LIN: A STRONG CLEAR VISION (1994) and NEVER GIVE UP: THE 20TH CENTURY ODYSSEY OF HERBERT ZIPPER (1995) to WRESTLING WITH ANGELS: PLAYWRIGHT TONY KUSHNER (2006) and ANITA: SPEAKING TRUTH TO POWER (2013), Mock has shown the uncanny ability to take intimate biographical detail and build larger-than-life narratives that reflect and illuminate the broader societal picture. For her extraordinary work, Mock received the 1995 Academy Award® for Best Documentary Feature and five total nominations; and a primetime Emmy® Award win from two nominations.
In her new film RUTH – JUSTICE GINSBURG IN HER OWN WORDS, Mock illuminates an intimate profile of Ginsburg with carefully culled archival footage and interviews, covering the full breadth of Ginsburg’s life, views and career.
The 2019 Guggenheim Symposium will pay tribute to this outstanding filmmaker with an onstage interview discussion of her career, film clips and a sneak preview of her fascinating new portrait of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, on Saturday, June 22.
AFI spoke with her about her career and new film, below.
AFI: Throughout your films, you take on these historical figures. What draws you to them and to Ruth Bader Ginsburg specifically?
FLM: In general, all have been living but they are steeped in history and have a major place in the historical-political aspect in the community, country and the world. They have a historical significance, whether it’s Anita Hill or Maya Lin, somehow the work that they’re drawn to lends itself to a major impact on sociopolitical aspects of our country and our life, and that’s what draws me to these characters and these people.
Anita Hill reluctantly talking about sexual harassment and putting that issue on the national consciousness; or Maya Lin dealing with issues of public art or censorship, a public sculpture honoring the dead. In the case of Justice Ginsburg, some executive producers asked if I would do a film about her. I knew little about the details, such as decades of the pioneering work on gender discrimination, advanced issues of equality for women and men.
AFI: How much research and preparation did you do before going into crafting a portrait of the Justice?
FLM: Every step along the way is very important. I hear the phrase, you “save the film in the editing room.” For me, I can’t do that. If you do the proper research and development in the first phase, I do a lot of research in terms of primary sources and secondary sources. We try to look at all the visuals, before planning what I call “production phase,” which is what needs to be filmed vs. what already existed. If the visual material doesn’t exist already, then I will film it or express it differently. For this film, we decided to use animation and illustration to deal with how to dramatize the court cases.
AFI: Was this your first time working in animation?
FLM: I had a psychology project years ago and I used animation. This was a great way to save myself visually — if I can’t figure it out visually, I thought, I’ll just illustrate it.
AFI: How much archival footage were you dealing with and how did you organize the material?
FLM: We had hundreds of hours of stock footage. The film SENNA [by Asif Kapadia], just by comparison, had 5,000 hours. [For my Ginsburg film], we had to sit days and weeks and months and look at all this footage. When she was nominated for Supreme Court, that’s most of the footage you begin to find. The challenge was finding material earlier than 1993, or anything when she’s not a Justice. How do you fill in the visuals when she’s a professor? Teaching was a critical stepping stone, as was volunteering for the ACLU in the ’70s and taking on these gender discrimination cases. Those stepping stones are really important. Is there any visual material? No, of course. That’s when we decided to take an animation approach.
AFI: What most surprised you about Ruth Bader Ginsburg?
FLM: I had no idea she had such a singular vision about gender. I had no idea that she was really the pioneer in the contemporary way we approach gender discrimination, equality and justice. A lot of it comes from her childhood, her jewish upbringing, being raised during WWII [and encountering] overt discrimination and violence toward Jews. So that was really fascinating to understand why she took this path.
The paths she took were a reaction to the outside world. She rose to the occasion, not being an outright feminist, but seeing that these issues were core to her own experience. The cases all deal with issues of injustice.
Highlights of this Saturday at AFIDOCS include tonight’s Charles Guggenheim Symposium with Oscar®-winning filmmaker Freida Lee Mock, presenting her new film RUTH – JUSTICE GINSBURG IN HER OWN WORDS. Also catch the world premiere of the Apollo landing documentary CHASING THE MOON; the music doc DAVID CROSBY: REMEMBER MY NAME; moving Australia-set portrait IN MY BLOOD IT RUNS; eco-thriller SEA OF SHADOWS; and more!
Screening tonight at 8:30 at the Landmark E Street, the film chronicles two unconventional police officers who are part of the San Antonio PD’s Mental Health Unit, founded to confront the fact that one in four people killed by police is mentally ill.
Ernie Stevens and Joe Smarro are not typical police officers. Dressed in polo shirts and slacks, guns out of view, the two approach each emergency call with the intent of defusing situations without force and helping those in need. They are part of the San Antonio Police Department’s Mental Health Unit, founded to confront the fact that one in four people killed by police is mentally ill. A rare 360-degree portrait of police officers, ERNIE & JOE gives no easy answers but reveals a path forward that could lead to transformative change nationwide. AFI spoke with director Jenifer McShane about her new work.
ERNIE & JOE plays as part of the Truth & Justice Program at AFI DOCS at the Landmark E Street Cinema in Washington DC on Friday, June 21 and at the AFI Silver Theatre in Silver Spring, MD on Saturday, June 22. Buy tickets to the screening here.
AFI: What led you to pursue documentary filmmaking?
I love telling stories that might make a difference.
AFI: How did you become involved and what led you to start telling this story?
While researching and making my last documentary, MOTHERS OF BEDFORD, I became acutely aware of the number of mentally ill people sitting behind bars in this country. The work being done by Ernie, Joe and their peers addressed issues I care about and dovetails with my work making MOTHERS OF BEDFORD.
AFI: How did you find and connect with Ernie and Joe to be the subjects of your film?
An article written by a friend about the mental health work being done in San Antonio sparked my initial interest. This prompted me to go out and spend time with the mental health unit without a camera. I realized fairly quickly that Ernie and Joe would be excellent characters to help tell this complicated story.
AFI: What was a particular struggle you faced while making your film?
Much of the film takes place inside a police car. My fear was that so much time in the car would be claustrophobic for the viewer, but it actually presented an opportunity to look at the bond that develops when you spend countless hours together in stressful situations.
AFI: What do you want audiences to take away from seeing your film?
On the face of it, this film is about mental health and policing, but I also believe that at its core it is about human connection. I would like the film to inspire people to look at their own communities and see how they can strengthen the bonds of human connection and improve our response to those in crisis.
AFI: Why is Washington, DC a crucial location to screen ERNIE & JOE?
DC is the policy capital of the world. I hope to catch the attention of those who might affect change.
AFI: Why are documentary films so important today?
Documentary films are vital. They provide a unique lens for learning and broadening our experience. I particularly appreciate when we can do this in unexpected ways. We are becoming a more and more polarized society, and documentaries can take an audience on meaningful journeys that can illuminate topics and expand our thinking and sometimes our hearts.
Day Three at AFI DOCS features more than 20 can’t-miss screenings, including SEARCHING EVA, a powerful profile of a 21st-century young woman; moving LGBTQ doc GAY CHORUS DEEP SOUTH; the provocative A WOMAN’S WORK: THE NFL’S CHEERLEADER PROBLEM; the stirring police portrait ERNIE & JOE; and much more. See you at the movies!
In 2017, the National Football League earned over $14 billion in revenue. NFL cheerleaders, however, earn less than minimum wage–some paid as low as $1.50 an hour. A WOMAN’S WORK highlights this astounding wage discrepancy through the stories of three women fighting back for what they deserve.
After dedicating years to training and paying out-of-pocket for expenses, the women risk their careers by leading a historic class-action lawsuit against the NFL, alleging gendered wage theft and egregious labor practices. As the women share their personal and professional struggles, A WOMAN’S WORK illustrates the everyday challenges and exploitation working women continue to face today.
Yu Gu is an LA-based filmmaker born in China and raised in Canada. She works in narrative and documentary film. Her first feature WHO IS ARTHUR CHU? premiered at Slamdance and was broadcast on America Reframed. Her work is supported by the Sundance Institute, ITVS, TFI, Firelight Media and Film Independent.
A WOMAN’S WORK: THE NFL’S CHEERLEADER PROBLEM plays as part of the Truth and Justice program at AFI DOCS at the AFI Silver Theatre in Silver Spring, MD on Thursday, June 20 and at the Landmark E Street Cinema in Washington DC on Friday, June 21. Buy tickets to the screening here.
AFI spoke with her about the film before its AFI DOCS premiere.
AFI: What led you to pursue documentary filmmaking?
My biggest inspiration is my family. Since I was a child, my parents and my grandparents always told stories about their experiences living through the Communist revolution, the Cultural Revolution, surviving labor camps and standing up for freedom of expression. They never sugarcoated anything. My family’s emotional honesty taught me that our stories, our dreams, our fears, our memories matter. They’re beautiful and worthy, even if there are those who seek to erase them. As a teenager and young adult, I filmed my family in China every chance I got. Since then, filmmaking has become my way to understand the world around me, to connect with people and myself. Because I am a foreigner both in my birthplace and in my chosen home, I need to make my own truths, and filmmaking helps me to envision a place where I belong. What inspires me to keep on being a filmmaker is seeing my dad who is a visual artist. He’s sacrificed a lot for his art and always describes his work as a practice. I see my filmmaking too as a lifelong practice.
AFI: How did you become interested in this story? What inspired you to tell it?
All my life I’ve felt like an outsider, as a girl and only child in China, as an Asian woman in the west. When I came to the United States as a graduate student, I fell in love with American football. It was marvelous to me that every Sunday, millions of people from all ethnic and economic backgrounds come together to watch this game that champions hard work, resilience and competition — all principles of the American dream. The cheerleaders on the field are the most visible, most celebrated and glamorized women in this man’s world. When Lacy first filed her lawsuit alleging that she was paid less than minimum wage in 2014, I suddenly saw so many parallels with my own experience of being devalued. Asian Americans in the United States have been trapped by the model minority myth. You will be accepted and rewarded only if you agree to blindly toe the line. The cheerleaders were told that this is not a job; it’s a privilege to dance on the field, to be seen as this cultural and sexual icon. I was fascinated that Lacy and the other women rebelled and became outsiders for the first time in their lives, something I knew a lot about. How will they rebuild themselves? How will they change and grow through this fight?
AFI: How did you find and connect with the subjects in your film?
I first contacted Lacy’s attorneys, Leslie, Sharon and Darci of LVBH, an all-female law firm based in Oakland, CA, who specialized in employment law and only represented workers. I drove up from LA to Oakland and met with the attorneys and Lacy. We connected immediately. I explained to Lacy that I wanted to make a long-term film, to document her journey in the lawsuit as well as her personal life. She said yes, and I began to film with her.
After bringing on producing partner and writer Elizabeth Ai, we contacted the attorneys for all the other four lawsuits that popped up across the country after Lacy, including Sean Cooney, who represents Maria in Buffalo, NY. We flew over there and met with them, explained our goal and also began the four-year journey of filming with Maria and her lawsuit.
AFI: What was a particular obstacle you faced while making the film?
This film has been extremely difficult. It’s so personal to me, and yet on the surface so foreign in the sense that I’m the one who’s foreign. I was shocked by the amount of stereotypes and prejudices I encountered both against my characters who are former cheerleaders, and against myself – an Asian American woman filmmaker. During one of the first interviews we conducted with a six-year veteran cheerleader, her husband sat down my producer Elizabeth and I and told us point blank, “If these women want money to dance half-naked on the field then they’re whores.” As we continued to apply for funding, we found it difficult to reach funders who were primarily liberal middle to upper class. Ironically, some also dismissed the women in our film because to them, these women chose to objectify themselves and in a way “asked for it”. Though it wasn’t necessarily spoken out loud, funders questioned my ability and perspective as a filmmaker to tackle such a mainstream subject – how dare you conflate women’s rights, labor rights, with America’s favorite pastime? The holy altar of sports shouldn’t be tainted, especially not by you.
Because of all this noise around me, it was hard for me to focus on my vision, on how I wanted to tell this story, and to believe that my perspective matters. For women of color, we already carry so much generational trauma in our bodies, as well as the brunt of everyday micro-aggressions. Over the five years of making this film, with the help of mentors, my team and great filmmaker organizations, I learned the discipline of focus. I focused on the affirmations, on digging deeper within myself, on my relationship with the women I was following, to channel my anger and doubt into my passion for making this film. I’m proud of myself and my team.
AFI: What do you want audiences to walk away with after screening your film?
I want to audiences to reflect on themselves. Do you value women’s work? Why or why not? If you think of yourself as a feminist, are there still biases within yourself that separate you from other women? Women, are you perpetuating the same toxic power dynamics and cultural norms of the patriarchy that hurt you? Irrespective of political allegiances, what are your values when it comes to gender equality and how can you better live those values? Collective identity is important, but does that collective serve to uplift all its members? I want people to understand that in order to change a system that hurts us all, we have to act collectively.
AFI: Why is Washington, DC a valuable location to screen your film?
Washington, DC, is the seat of political power in the United States and it’s also a symbol of America’s power to the world. Documentary films like ours and others that screen at the festival pose as a force that questions, subverts, engages in critical dialogue with this established, white male power, in order to create different ways of thinking and relating to each other. As our main character Lacy said in an interview, this is not just a cheerleader problem, it’s a woman problem. It’s important for national lawmakers and decision makers to understand this.
AFI: Why are documentary films important today?
Documentaries not only witness reality unfolding in our everyday life, they also are able to reimagine reality. The era of feigned objectivity is long gone. We as documentary filmmakers today are able to filter, fragment and reconstruct the world around us in order to tell a larger truth that embodies both the worlds of the people we document as well as our own internal world of unique perspective and experience. This enriched filmmaking is why we’re experiencing a golden age of documentary today. In a time of polarization, extremism and the echo chamber of the internet, documentary film is more important than ever to pull us out of our enclosures and into new worlds we all share.
Buy tickets to A WOMAN’S WORK: THE NFL’S CHEERLEADER PROBLEM here.
Directors Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman discuss making their film, in which they chronicle Ronstadt’s trailblazing success.
LINDA RONSTADT: THE SOUND OF MY VOICE plays as part of the Anthem program at AFI DOCS at the Landmark E Street Cinema in Washington DC on Thursday, June 20 and at the AFI Silver Theatre in Silver Spring, MD on Sunday, June 23. Directors Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman will be in attendance.Buy tickets to the screening here.
With her dynamic voice, Linda Ronstadt became a superstar pop artist during the male-dominated music industry of the 1970s. Esteemed filmmakers Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman chronicle Ronstadt’s trailblazing success, from her early days on the folk music scene to her sold-out stadium concerts and the sisterhood she created through music.
Ronstadt began performing solo after breaking into music with the Stone Poneys. Through rocking archival footage and rare photos, Ronstadt shares the challenges of showbusiness and her creative interests in exploring other music genres including opera, country and Mexican folk. Featuring interviews with Dolly Parton, Bonnie Raitt, Emmylou Harris and Don Henley, LINDA RONSTADT: THE SOUND OF MY VOICE is a portrait of a strong and talented woman that gave voice to a generation.
Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman’s work as directors, writers, producers and editors has been honored with two Academy Awards®, five Emmy® Awards and three Peabody Awards. They have had retrospectives at London Institute of Contemporary Art, Taipei International Film Festival, Cinémathéque Québécoise and Zurich Pink Apple Film Festival. We spoke with Epstein and Friedman about their latest work.
AFI: What led you to pursue documentary filmmaking?
JF: I began my film career as an assistant film editor on both nonfiction and fiction feature films. They both interested me in different ways. Fiction was magical, creating the illusion of real life from whole cloth. Documentaries had a different magic, distilling bits of real life into a coherent dramatic narrative — most of which happened in the editing room. Creatively, this felt challenging and satisfying. The subjects of the documentaries I worked on felt more urgent, more relevant to my experience and more engaged with real-world issues.
RE: While I was in college, I had little notion of what I wanted to study or why. I took a leave of absence to explore alternative creative pathways. This led me to take a filmmaking class at San Francisco State University, while simultaneously snagging a gig as a production assistant on a documentary in its early stages of production. This project would eventually become the landmark documentary WORD IS OUT, the first documentary about being LGBT in America, made by a collective of LGBT filmmakers (of which I was a part). Finding my way into nonfiction filmmaking opened up something within my own creative self, and it gave me the opportunity to speak to the world about matters of importance.
AFI: How did you become interested in making a documentary about Linda Ronstadt? What inspired you to tell it?
RE: I’ve long been a fan of Linda Ronstadt. My first record was a 45 single of her hit “Different Drum.” Decades later, while driving in my car, I heard Linda on the NPR show Fresh Air being interviewed by Terry Gross, after the publication of her memoir Simple Dreams. I was taken by her intelligence, and her down-to-earthness, and the way in which she spoke of her own musical career as a self-taught singer and musician. I read the book and immediately thought “this should be a film” — and it should be in her voice, like her direct and honest first-person literary voice.
JF: Reading Linda’s memoir Simple Dreams, I was impressed and inspired by her devotion to her craft and by her artistic restlessness. It’s the story of a phenomenally successful artist whose success seemed to grow organically out of her love of music — rather than out of a yearning for fame or fortune that seems to motivate people today.
AFI: How did you find and connect with Linda for the film?
RE: My computer guy was making a house call to tend to my computer and noticed Linda’s book Simple Dreams on my desk in my home office. “Linda Ronstadt is a client of mine too,” he said. And that’s how we made the first approach. Jeffrey and I invited Linda to lunch — we all live in San Francisco — and presented her with our ideas and approach. At first, she was reluctant to even entertain the idea of a film. She said, “No one is going to want to see this. No one is going to want to fund it.” But eventually she came around. And then we got an out-of-the-blue call from producer James Keach, who said CNN Films was interested in doing a Linda Ronstadt project, and he heard we had the rights to her book. Once James came on board, the project took off.
AFI: What was a particular hurdle you faced while making the documentary?
JF: Linda didn’t write her own songs, so each of the songs had to be cleared with different rights-holders. This ended up being less onerous than it might have, thanks to the love and respect Linda engenders in artists she’s worked with and songwriters whose music she sang.
RE: Unfortunately, Linda has Parkinson’s Disease now, so her participation had to be extremely limited. But we were able to accomplish what we set out to do, which is to have her tell her own story, in her own voice, by threading together interviews she did over the course of five decades to create a first-person perspective.
AFI: What do you want audiences to walk away with after screening your film?
JF: I’d like for viewers to take away an appreciation of Linda Ronstadt as an artist with astonishing talent and range.
RE: And also realize how much of a pioneer she was, coming through the gauntlet of superstardom undamaged as a human being, with her humanity intact.
AFI: Why is Washington, DC an important place to screen your film?
RE: Linda Ronstadt is an American pop icon, so where better to celebrate than the nation’s capital?
AFI: Why are documentary films still crucial in today’s world?
RE: This is a golden age for documentary for a whole complex of reasons —means of production are more accessible to a wider cross-section of artists, audiences are hungry for authenticity and streaming services have created new funding opportunities and distribution platforms. All of this is good news.
JF: As the very notion of truth is daily battered and bruised, documentaries can offer a way of understanding the world in a deeper, more nuanced way. They can also mislead and manipulate. A lot depends on the intellectual honesty of the filmmakers, as well as the capacity for critical thinking on the part of media consumers.
Buy tickets to LINDA RONSTADT: THE SOUND OF MY VOICE here.